Deadwood amounts have dramatically declined all over the world. Here I present four reasons why deadwood is so important:
1. Deadwood remains in the forest for a long time
When wood decays, it transforms into carbon dioxide, water and minerals. These are exactly the materials that a living tree binds during photosynthesis. The complete degradation of a tree takes 50 to 100 years in northern regions. Deadwood therefore remains a part of the forest ecosystem for a long time, thus enabling the survival of species depending on deadwood as a substrate.
2. Deadwood is nutrition for fungi and invertebrates
Fungi are the main decomposers of deadwood, but bacteria and invertebrates also take part in the decaying processes. These organisms have special digestive compounds, enzymes, to cut the wooden structure into more easily digestible forms. This works in the same way as the enzymes in our own stomachs that cut the food we eat into more usable shape. Fungi can be divided into three main decomposer groups: white, brown and soft rot. White-rot fungi, e.g. Phellinus nigrolimitatus, lives mainly on deciduous wood, whereas brown-rot fungi, such as Coniophora olivacea, are mostly in charge of decomposing conifers. Beetles (Coleoptera), ants (Formicidae) and termites (Isoptera) are examples of invertebrates that use deadwood as a form of nutrition, but e.g. pin lichens (Calicioid) can also more or less decompose wood.
3. Deadwood is home for animal offspring
Deadwood is home for thousands of species. For some species deadwood can be an incubation place and a safe nest for newborn offspring. Several beetles and termites lay their eggs inside deadwood, where the hatching larvae are safe in their own chambers. As for Nematocera, Brachycera and Aculeata, the deadwood-decomposing fungi functions as a rearing place for larvae. In addition to invertebrates, birds, bats and flying squirrels (Pteromys volans) also use the holes in deadwood as nesting places. Furthermore woodpeckers (Picidae) as cavity nesters are a good indicator for deadwood abundance.
4. The disappearance of deadwood creates local extinctions at the very least
Nowadays deadwood is a dying natural resource. Forestry has decreased the amount of deadwood in Finnish forests by over 90%, concurrently causing the local extinctions of several species. Species that depend on deadwood throughout their entire lives are at greatest risk. Such species include the fungi Phellinus igniarius and the three-toed woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus).