The secret wildlife of golf courses

The cool morning air has strewn the lawn with small dewdrops. The green is bathed in flickering mist and shining dewdrops. Soon the green is filled with the sibilant sound of golf balls and walking golfers, but for a while, the course still belongs to someone else.

Water hazards of Hiekkaharju Golf in Vantaa (in the Helsinki metropolis area) provide suitable habitats for diverse species. Picture borrowed from http://www.hieg.fi

Keimola Golf, located in Vantaa (in the Helsinki metropolis area in Finland), is a true paradise for birds and amphibians. Whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus), common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), and horned grebe (Podiceps auritus) pairs nest in the largest water hazard. In addition, the black woodpecker (Dryocopus martius) nests nearby. The number of horned grebes has declined worldwide, and the species is considered vulnerable in Finland. The Finnish population has decreased from 3000 to 6000 nesting pairs in the 1980s to the present 1200–1700 nesting pairs.

On the other hand, all Finnish amphibian species, except one, can be found living in one of the smallest water hazards of Keimola Golf. Only the Northern crested newt (Triturus cristatus) does not occur there. The Northern crested newt is critically endangered in Finland, and can only be found in a few places in eastern Finland. In spring, the common frog (Rana temporaria), the moor frog (Rana arvalis), and the common toad (Bufo bufo) croak vigorously. The smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris) does not croak, but mating males bring tropical colors into an otherwise brownish landscape.

Mating smooth newt males are springtime color spots in a wetland. ©Mia Vehkaoja

By Midsummer, golf courses are swarming. On dry land, golfers enjoy their sport in warm summer weather, while hatched ducklings and tadpoles are concurrently going through growth spurts around the water hazards. Golf courses provide lots of nutrition for ducklings and tadpoles. Water hazards, as most wetlands, are habitats for several invertebrates, such as mosquito (Culicidae), nematocera (Nematocera), and trichoptera larvae, as well as for phyto- and zooplankton. Amphibians prefer open and sunny wetlands because higher temperatures escalate tadpole development. Ducklings, on the other hand, prefer wetlands with luxuriant shoreline vegetation (for example club rushes and sedges). Vegetation provides cover against predation.

Luxuriant shoreline vegetation provides cover for ducklings against predation, whereas openness increases water temperature and escalates tadpole development. ©Mia Vehkaoja

Golf courses are oases for wetland-associated species, especially in urban environments, where most wetlands are isolated from each other. For numerous species, water hazards and golf greens offer nearly free access between wetlands and other habitats. Golf courses are currently not planned to consider nature and its needs. What if nature were taken into account during planning, with at least a 10% effort? Keimola Golf’s extraordinary biodiversity has arisen through chance. Waterfowl diversity is due to an island left in the middle of the largest water hazard. The island has some ten trees and bushes. The whooper swan and common goldeneye nest on this island.

Both national and international designers have planned Finnish golf courses. Keimola Golf was planned in Great Britain. More and more, architects plan golf courses by initially outlining the routes, after which the planning is continued on-site concurrently while the course is being constructed. This method enables taking nature into account during the planning process.

Architects could pay attention to small things that benefit animal and plant species when planning water hazards and groves. For example, bushes and shoreline vegetation could be left next to the shoreline that is not close to the green. This has been done at Keimola Golf. Paying attention to such small details does not even cause additional costs. Furthermore, most golfers enjoy the sport because they can be outside and “enjoy” nature. If nature were actually taken into account during planning, golfers could actually play their sport “in the wild”.

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