Wetlands, the Earth’s kidneys

Wetlands are one of the world’s most important ecosystems. They are referred to as the “Earth’s kidneys” and that comparison could not be more accurate. Wetlands truly are as important to the planet as kidneys are to humans, with one exception: humans can survive with only one kidney, but the Earth cannot.

Kidneys are in charge of humans’ fluid balance. If we are dehydrated, our kidneys try to preserve as much water in our bodies as possible, and when we have excess water our bodies, our kidneys work to discharge the extra water. Wetlands work in the same way. They mitigate both floods and droughts by absorbing and recharging water.

A wetland photographed from a drone. © Antti Nykänen

In addition to fluid balance, kidneys are also responsible for removing unnecessary and hazardous substances, such as waste products and medical substances. In resemblance to our kidneys, wetlands purify our natural waters. They filter and remove nutrients and pollutants from our rain and floodwaters. Extra nutrients will sink to the bottom of the wetland and hence are available for wetland vegetation. Kidneys purify 1750 litres of blood every day, but the water purification ability of global wetlands is 30-fold. Wetlands purify 30 cubic litres of water daily.

Unfortunately, the world has lost approximately half of its wetlands, and Europe alone has destroyed and altered two-thirds of its wetlands. We need strong actions to retain the Earth’s functioning.

The value of wetlands is essential in urban environments, where nutrient and pollutant levels are manyfold compared to more natural environments. Urban wetlands should be seen as important and cheap tools to purify our stormwaters, along with maintaining biodiversity within cities.

A Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) chick at a wetland in Finland. © Mia Vehkaoja

Luckily, the Ramsar Convention has acknowledged the importance of urban wetlands and themed this year’s World Wetland Day as “Wetlands for a Sustainable Urban Future”. Happy World Wetland Day 2018! Let’s appreciate the Earth’s vital organs.

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