Pin lichens — the tiny color blots on deadwood

Have you ever entered a forest and seen a person hugging a tree, peering up along the trunk? From this day onwards you can breathe freely again, because you have just encountered a pin lichen biologist at work, and not some bizarre tree-hugging ritual.

Pin lichen biologist peering up along the trunk. © Stella Thompson

Pin lichen biologist peering up along the trunk. © Stella Thompson

Pin lichens, or more formally known as Calicioids, are a diverse and monophyletic lichen group, which usually inhabits deadwood. As their name suggests, they resemble pins. They are tiny, approximately between one millimeter and five centimeters in size. The best way to observe them is to peer up along the trunk of a tree. The spores accumulate into a mazaedium (a cup-shaped part of the fungi), from which they can cling onto the hairs and feathers of animals, or passively disperse otherwise. The spores can be recognized as soot-like dust on your fingers.

Pin lichens growing on deadwood. This species Mycocalicium subtile can be identified with often paler infested area than the surrounding wood. © Mia Vehkaoja

Pin lichens growing on deadwood. This species Mycocalicium subtile can be identified with often paler infested area than the surrounding wood. © Mia Vehkaoja

Although it is relative easy to observe pin lichens with the bare eye, species identification is usually conducted using a loupe or microscope. Further observation opens an entire new world of colors. The algae parts of many pin lichen species are brightly colored in yellow, green, or red. On other species, the stalk of the fungal part forming the actual pin structure can also be quite colorful: white, green, yellow, or brown.

Rust-stained pin lichen (Chaenotheca ferruginea) thrives on conifers, and it is quite widely distributed in temperate to cool temperate areas of the Northern Hemisphere. © Mia Vehkaoja

Rust-stained pin lichen (Chaenotheca ferruginea) thrives on conifers, and it is quite widely distributed in temperate to cool temperate areas of the Northern Hemisphere. © Mia Vehkaoja

There are approximately 70 different pin lichen species in Finland, but unfortunately they are a very deficiently studied group. Some species are parasites. They sponge on e.g other pin lichen species or mosses. Even pin lichen fossils have been found within amber. Using these fossils we are able to model the tree structures of forests that grew over a million years ago. This tiny, yet fascinating, species group deserves to receive more attention. Furthermore, observing them is relatively easy, because they don’t move and make a run for it. All you need is a pair of sharp eyes.

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One thought on “Pin lichens — the tiny color blots on deadwood

  1. Pingback: Four reasons why beaver wetlands are paradise for pin lichens | Close Encounters of the Natural Kind

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